**Aims and objectives of teaching mathematics**

Keeping in perspective the fear of mathematics that is found among the children, it is necessary to plan school mathematics in such a way that children enjoy learning of mathematics. Understanding when and how a mathematical technique is to be used is always more important than recalling the technique from memory. Making mathematics a part of children’s life experience is the best mathematics education possible.

The objectives can, therefore, be listed as given below:

**Knowledge**

At the end of the course, students should be able to: 1. Know and understand the concepts from the five branches of mathematics. 2. Use appropriate mathematical concepts and skills to solve problems. 3. Select and apply general rules correctly to solve problems including those in real-life contexts.

**Understanding**

At the end of the course, students should be able to: 1. Use appropriate mathematical language in both oral and written forms. 2. Use different forms of mathematical representation at the appropriate places. 3. Move between different forms of representation.

**Application**

At the end of the course student should be able to: 1. Select and apply appropriate inquiry and mathematical problem-solving techniques. 2. Describe patterns as relationships or general rules. 3. Draw conclusions consistent with findings. 4. Justify or prove mathematical relationships and general rules.

**Evaluation**

At the end of the course students should be able to: 1. Explain whether the results make sense in the context of the problem. 2. Explain the importance of their findings. 3. Justify the degree of accuracy of their results where appropriate.

**Creation**

At the end of the course, students should be able to suggest improvements to the method wherever applicable.

**Interest**

- Recognize the presence of mathematics in the world around us.

**Appreciation**

- Mentions the usefulness and beauty of mathematics in nature.
- Enjoys mathematics and develop patience and persistence when solving problems.

I have intentionally left out the psychomotor domain.

A few examples of mathematics in nature. A German psychologist Adolf zeising, found the golden ratio In the arrangement of leaves and branches along the stem of plant and the veins in leaves. The number of petals in the flower consistently follows the golden ratio for example Lily has three petals butter cups have 5, the chicory 21, the Daisy 34 and so on. Phi appears in petals on account of the ideal packing arrangement selected by Darwinian processes.

The golden ratio, also known as the divine proportion, is a mathematical ratio of 1:1.618, or Phi, with a decimal that stretches to infinity, closely linked to the Fibonacci sequence.

Phyllotaxy which is the arrangement of leaves on an axis or stem is connected with the golden ratio because it involves successive leaves or petals being separated by the golden angle. It also results in the emergence of spirals it is sometimes stated that Nautilus shells get wider in the pattern of a golden spiral and hence are related to both Phi and the Fibonacci series.

The honeycomb is a case of wallpaper symmetry where are separated pattern covers a plane like a tiled roof or mosaic. It is believed that it is the perfect shape to allow the largest amount of honey by using the least amount of wax. Some other examples of symmetry in nature are snowflakes sunflowers, and starfish.

Courtesy: From Chalk to Talk The Art of Teaching by Dr. Pramila Kudva